December 20, 2019
Mahmoud Al-Khatatbeh - December 20 - December 2019 Forums stressed the importance of documentation for the era of the late King Hussein bin Talal, may his soul rest in peace, noting the need to strengthen documentation methods or the existence of a comprehensive mechanism for it. They stressed the importance of the oral archive in the documentation processes of Jordan as a state and the late Hussein as a leader, although some forums said, "There is no interest in archiving, and it faces a real problem." They pointed out the most important characteristics of Al-Hussein, the most important of which are: balance, tolerance, love, honesty, humanity, openness of the chest, he was not bloody. This came during a symposium entitled “Sources of Studies on the Late King Hussein bin Talal”, held by the Center for Strategic Studies - University of Jordan, today, Tuesday, December 17, 2019, in cooperation with Prince Al Hussein bin Abdullah II College of International Studies. The Director of the Center for Strategic Studies, Dr. Zaid Eyadat, said that this symposium is part of a series of lectures and symposia for the “King Hussein Bin Talal Chair for Jordanian and International Studies.” Clinics explained that the aim of the symposium is to establish the study of Jordanian history, as well as documentation and sources on the history of the late Hussein, according to highly credible sources. The symposium included three sessions, the first came under the title “Studies that dealt with the late King Hussein,” where the session was moderated by former Foreign Minister Kamel Abu Jaber, who spoke about Hussein, the father, the warrior, the man of peace, the builder, a king who mastered the art of politics, especially in a time of “militarization.” beliefs.” Abu Jaber added that "Al-Hussein was able to build a successful state, when all modern states failed to do so." Ali Mohafza, in a working paper entitled “Foreign Policy and the Palestinian Issue,” said that “the late Hussein’s speech differed according to who he spoke to, as he spoke to a civilian in a different way than he spoke to a soldier or soldier, and that The way he spoke was different when he addressed the Arab nation, or to foreign leaders.” He stressed the need to “not be satisfied with one narration when documenting, as all narrations, whether official, private or neutral, must be taken into consideration,” noting that “many Jordanian officials neglect documents.” Mohafazah touched upon Al-Hussein’s stages of the Palestinian cause, his political stances on it and his defense of it, dealing with the Palestine Liberation Organization, and his political stances, up to the “disengagement” decision, the peace conference (Madrid), and the lessons learned from the Palestinian cause. He referred to the development of the Palestinian cause in Hussein's thought, the late political position on June 4, 1967, his defense of the unity of the two banks, his opinion on the Arab-Israeli wars, and his awareness of the Arab-Israeli conflict. He also referred to Al-Hussein’s position from 1964 until 1974, i.e. the Rabat Conference and the decision that the Palestine Liberation Organization be the sole representative of the Palestinian people, and the late’s position on the guerrilla action, the visit of Egyptian President Muhammad Anwar Sadat to Tel Aviv, and the 1987 Palestinian popular uprising, Then the decision to disengage, the peace conference (Madrid), the peace treaty with Israel (Wadi Araba), and Hussein's criticism of the US policy biased towards Israel. For his part, Dr. Jamal Al-Shalabi presented a working paper on “Studies of Governance and Internal Issues,” in which he referred to the most important stations of the late Hussein: the expulsion of the English officer Club Pasha, the Arabization of the Jordanian army leadership, the policy of containment regarding the putschists, the 1967 war. In addition to the sudden restoration of the relationship with Egypt, and the reactivation of the joint Arab defense agreement, referring to “the mistake of placing the Arab army in the custody or under the command of an Egyptian officer,” in reference to the 1967 war. Al- Shalabi wondered how long the Jordanian arena will be left for foreign writers to write About Jordan? Where is the Jordanian narrative, which is reinforced and convincing?, stressing that knowing the path of the late Hussein with sincerity and credibility leads us to understand the past, the present, and even the future. Shalabi also referred to the “stability” of the prime minister’s general mandate in the 1960s, in addition to the fact that Jordanian politics enjoyed independence, stressing that the late king had a political, economic, and social project at the regional level. For his part, Dr. Muhannad Mobaideen presented a paper entitled “Personal Biographical Studies”, in which he referred to “how the late Hussein crossed the crises, starting with the martyrdom of the founding King Abdullah I, passing through the Baghdad Pact, until the signing of the peace agreement, describing “King Hussein as a brave man, The human". He also stressed the importance of “reconstructing the Jordanian narrative,” especially after the new modernity. In his intervention, former Prime Minister Abdel Raouf al-Rawabdeh said, “It is not permissible to try matters retroactively,” adding, “Any country has one opinion, with the exception of Jordan. You see there is more than one opinion, most of which are accusations, while others are acquitted.” Al-Rawabdeh stressed the necessity of collecting studies, through thinkers, politicians, academics and clerics, and then dialogue, and then come up with one opinion that serves Jordan. In turn, writer and researcher Dr. Hassan Al-Barari said, “We need a framework to understand how Jordan formulates its positions on the Palestinian issue,” adding at the same time, “No critical narrative was presented about Jordan, far from insulting or insulting.” He explained that writing a critical novel would "enable future generations to understand Jordan." As for the second session, chaired by former Minister of Youth Mohamed Daoudia, it was entitled “Documents related to the era of King Hussein’s rule, their value and whereabouts,” in which Dr. Abdul Majeed Al-Shannaq, Hind Abu Al-Shaar, and George Tarif spoke. Dawoudia described “the late Hussein’s personality as tolerant and generous,” adding that “the late had a moral and political survival ability.” For his part, Al-Shanaq demanded the opening of a central archive for the state, focusing on Jordan as a state and Hussein as a leader, as well as the country’s men, stressing the need to make a “biography” about King Hussein bin Talal. For her part, Abu al-Sha’ar said, in a working paper entitled “The Archives of a King and the History of a Homeland,” that documents related to the era of the late Hussein’s rule are an important issue, which must be methodological, stressing the importance of the sources of studies as they are very important to the Hussein throne. She added that Hussein ruled Jordan for nearly half a century, which means almost half the life of the Jordanian state since its inception, noting that there have been citizens for five decades who do not know Hussein. Abu al-Shaar added that there are approximately 26,000 documents about the founding King Abdullah I, pointing out that the documents about Hussein may number up to millions. She pointed out, “Unfortunately, the Al-Hussein archive has not yet been opened and classified, although there are currently works in this direction.” Abu al-Sha’ar emphasized the importance of the oral archive, or what is called personal memory, with regard to the archive of the late Hussein, especially when it was taken from those men who served near him and who was close to him. Abu al-Shaar said that the late Hussein ruled Jordan for nearly half a century, which means that half of the history of the Jordanian state is related to the era of Hussein. She indicated that King Hussein's archive does not begin with his accession to the throne, but rather since his birth in 1935 AD, and details of his illustrated, written and audio life must be collected at the Bishop's School, Victoria College in Alexandria, and Sandhurst College. Abu al-Shaar pointed out that the Hussein archives are distributed throughout the world, hence the difficulty of obtaining it, emphasizing the need to develop a plan for this work, which means collecting the history of the homeland. She continued, "The world witnessed in the half century in which Hussein assumed the throne of Jordan, a great boom in the written, audio and visual press, so there were many means of documentation, between recording of written, audio and video interviews, which means that we have before us a huge and limitless amount of Hussein's activities for nearly half a century." Between the local, the Arab, the regional and the global. Abu al-Shaar explained that with this diversity, and with the distribution of the archive on all axes, the technologies that are currently developing at the speed of light help in this combination if a well-thought-out and committed plan is developed. She said that the Al Hussein archive has not yet been opened and classified, and it is a vast and large work that needs a team of experienced documentarians and historians, who should be those who know foreign languages. Abu al-Shaar indicated that the archives of the late Hussein can be located in the following places: the archives of the Royal Court, which represent a very large number of files that need classification and indexing, the archive of the Prime Minister’s House, the archive of the Jordanian armed forces, the radio and television archive of speeches, interviews, and news of Hussein’s video activities inside and abroad. In addition to the photos kept by Zohrab Markian, the late private photographer, who published some photos and still has many family and official photos, which document the life of Hussein over a quarter of a century, in addition to the Jordanian embassies in Arab and foreign countries, these archives are worthy of study due to the international dimension. In it, as well as the local, Arab and foreign press. Abul Shaar added that it is possible to benefit from the archive of His Highness Prince El Hassan bin Talal, which is certainly the archive of the late Hussein and the Jordanian state, where hundreds of thousands of documents have been archived and classified. In addition to institutions, museums, municipalities, university libraries, the National Library and its archives and archives, and the archives of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Abu al-Sha’ar confirmed that one of the most important sources for documenting half a century of the state’s life is the documentation of the oral narratives of those who worked with Hussein, as well as local, Arab and international memoirs, which complement the oral narratives and may enrich or contradict them. It is a very required case for anyone who writes history to see all Narratives, comparing and analyzing them. She also referred to Al-Hussein's books in which he preserved his personal narrative, which should not be absent from this rich and varied archive. Abul Shaar said that Al-Hussein inherited a state bearing the spirit of the Arab Renaissance, and he was proudly mentioned in it in all his speeches and interviews as the heir of this revolution and the Arab Renaissance. He was raised by the founding king, the son of the leader of the Great Arab Revolt, and by King Talal, the legislator and the author of the constitution Al-Hussein also inherited the first model for achieving Arab unity with the unity of the two banks, and the Arab leadership of the Arab army, while the beginnings of his reign between 1953 and 1967 were stormy with the hostility of neighbors and their propaganda confrontations, and he succeeded in establishing the pillars of the state, building and modernizing the army, and consolidating an economic and knowledge structure, despite the scarcity of resources. Abu al-Sha’ar touched on confronting the effects of the June War of 1967, and the war’s consequences from the loss of the West Bank and the insecurity with the expansion of guerrilla groups on the land and Jordanian cities, and the resulting events in 1970. Abul Shaar concluded by saying that King Hussein's archive deserves exceptional care, but the multiplicity of places in which this archive is distributed requires unification and organization of efforts because it is a process that requires great time and efforts. She stressed the need to select workers within strict conditions, who have national morals, as there are papers that must be preserved and careful not to be leaked, and it is no secret that this is the era of (war of documents) and whoever receives the trust must know the value of trust and citizenship, and the site is calculated on its owner and the Faisal here It is morality. Selling and leaking documents is a disease of this electronic age, and the most efficient and committed must be chosen. Abul Shaar also emphasized that this work requires more than a dedicated and loyal team that possesses high intellectual, technical and patriotic competencies. For his part, Dr. George Tarif said, in a working paper entitled “Documents related to the era of the late King Hussein bin Talal, may his soul rest in peace,” that Jordan witnessed during the reign of the late Hussein many historical events, the most prominent of which was the termination of the British Mandate, and the Arabization of Commanding the Arab Army, consolidating the foundations of government and the events of the June 1967 war. In addition to the Iran-Iraq war in 1980, after which Iraq entered Kuwait and formed an international coalition of 39 countries to strike Iraq, in addition to Hussein’s prominent role in the Palestinian cause, whether in wartime or in the peace process. In his paper, Tarif dealt with the documents of the Prime Ministry and its ministries and institutions, which constitute an important source for studying the era of the late rule, as he was drawing a clear road map through assignment books for prime ministers and directing them towards work priorities at the internal and external levels. He said the Cabinet includes documents of treaties and agreements signed by Jordan with Arab and foreign countries in many military, political, economic and other fields, including the results of the meetings of the joint higher committees between Jordan and the Arab countries, each country separately, adding that these agreements, treaties and committees embody the extent of cooperation. Exchanging experiences and working to develop relations between Jordan and those countries in various fields. Tarif added that the files of the Ministry of Interior document developments and security issues in terms of achieving security and stability during the late era, including the events of 1970 and 1989, in addition to developments related to the emergence of parties in Jordan and transformations towards achieving democracy and others. He stressed the importance of acquiring the Israeli archive, including documents, files, and photos related to the Palestinian cause, documenting photos and films, the 1967 war, the war of attrition, the 1973 war, the invasion of southern Lebanon, and many of the events and developments that occurred during the Hussein era. He stressed that one of the important documents that can be referred to is the Ministry of Occupied Territory Affairs, which was established during the late era to preserve the rights of the Palestinians and follow up their affairs from various sides. Its files include everything related to Palestinian refugees and displaced persons before 1967 and beyond, and what is happening on the occupied Palestinian land from developments. Also important documents for this era are the documents of the Ministry of Awqaf, Islamic Affairs and Holy Places, especially those related to Jerusalem and the role of the late in preserving Islamic and Christian holy sites and confronting all Israeli attempts to Judaize Jerusalem and other holy places in the occupied Palestinian territories, as well as the Hashemite reconstruction operations of the blessed Al-Aqsa Mosque The Dome of the Rock in the late era. In the paper, Tarif also dealt with the documents of the National Assembly, where the speeches of the throne come at the forefront of the important documents included in this assembly, which numbered 36, during the period between 1953 and 1999. He said that these speeches include achievements at various levels, facts and events and the role of the successive Jordanian governments in them, and the responses of the Senate and House of Representatives are important documents for translating what is contained in those speeches into the lived reality. Tarif added that the National Assembly documents include deliberations and discussions that were taking place under the dome regarding various political and non-political issues. In his intervention, former Foreign Minister Marwan Muasher said, “The Jordanian state has not given archiving any importance,” describing the archiving project as a “real problem.” For his part, the former head of the royal court, Adnan Abu Odeh, said, "There are few who know about Hussein or his person, as he was a stoic in the sense that he was a person who could hold on to difficulties and difficult times." The third session, chaired by former Minister of Information Samir Mutawa, came under the title “Oral history and its importance in monitoring facts and events that were overlooked by books and documents,” in which: colleague journalist writer Ahmed Abu Khalil, Dr. Abdulaziz Mahmoud, from Al al-Bayt University, and Dr. Muhammad Adwan. Mutawa said that our aim in this symposium is to spread knowledge and documentation of the Hussein era, stressing the need to strengthen documentation methods, “We want a comprehensive mechanism for documentation.” He expressed his hope that all that is needed for the era of the late Hussein will be collected, as he ruled Jordan for nearly half a century, which means half the life of the Jordanian state. In turn, Abu Khalil said, through a working paper entitled "The King's Stories and His People... Research Processes and Expectations", that the idea began with a research proposal on the King's stories with his people, from a socio-anthropological perspective He stressed the importance of the official oral archive, pointing out that hundreds of stories, tales and attitudes that were collected by their owners with the late Hussein are widely spread on a popular and official scale, some of which date back to before he assumed his constitutional powers (May 1952), that is, in the phase of political upbringing and preparation for the king. He added that these stories, tales and situations constitute an important aspect of the biography of government and authority in the era of the late, and researchers from inside and outside pay attention to them as essential and indispensable elements to complete the picture. Abu Khalil explained that these stories and anecdotes, despite their “distribution and scattering” over different situations and times, can be seen that they are organized into a thread or a network of threads, allowing as a phenomenon in the Jordanian political society. He continued, “This phenomenon does not belong to the king alone as a ruler and head of power, but also to the specifications of the other party, that is, the Jordanian society, its structure and its people, meaning that the phenomenon is studied in a more comprehensive context that affects both sides of the relationship.” Abu Khalil added that the question about these tales is present and posed with force, but it is usually confined to the “emotional” dimension, and was not studied as a phenomenon that indicates a specificity, in the Jordanian political and anthropological sociology. He pointed out that such a verbal, verbal and undocumented relationship between the king and the people formed the basis of the development project at the macro level, especially in the sixties and early seventies of the last century. Abu Khalil said that “reasonable” references are available to track and monitor the phenomenon, but many of its facts and elements are still in the memory of the people who witnessed it or were a party to it, which requires speedy documentation and registration in preparation for research and study. He added, from the first moment of the start of the research, it was decided to limit it to the national, that is, the local Jordanian issue, because observing and studying the general oral history of a personality like King Hussein, who was distinguished by a wide presence at the regional and international levels, would make the task very complex. Abu Khalil continued, “I noticed from the beginning that what was “oral” in the political administration of the late King, and of the Jordanian politicians who led our country throughout that time, was a major complement to what is “documented,” stressing that the research is about revealing aspects of history. The informal” of our country, which was complementary and integral to the official history. He explained that this does not mean an elevation or preference for the non-institutional work, i.e. what is going on outside the institutions, given that what is informal usually involves transgressing the institutional, but in the Jordanian reality things are not and have not been dealt with that simple, as long as we are dealing with a history related to society and people, i.e. group of people in specific circumstances and in concrete historical, social and cultural contexts conditioned by the broader context that includes the part of the world in which we are. And Abu Khalil indicated that the oral or informal of the late king was generally equivalent or similar, or what is practical, direct and “human” in many cases, emphasizing that the concept of humanity here is not limited to what is personal or emotional, for example. He continued, "It is clear that the King and his administration men, especially in the first two decades of his rule, in the fifties and sixties of the last century, decided to carry out their duties in a manner that reconciles, meets, respects, and sometimes submits to the structure of society and its culture, a society that witnessed many changes and events of profound impact, nor did they The process of diversification in its cultural, social and political components has stopped (since the establishment of the state until now). He said, “The researcher today can estimate that the king chose to make his own version of the practice of governance, and the course of research allows from now on to say that this formed the king’s method of understanding governance, which in return, and by interacting with him, formed the people’s method of understanding the king as a ruler, and it is still being thrown A shadow over the relationship of the people to the state as a whole. Abu Khalil added that I was able to conduct a good number of interviews with personalities of different levels, but the main problem that I faced is related to receiving many apologies for speaking from personalities who were close at higher levels, and at lower levels as well. I also faced with some respondents the problem of selection negatively affecting the content, according to Abu Khalil, who explained the reason for this by saying, “I have some explanation for this, but I will only disclose one possible factor, which is that the researcher’s personality may be the reason.” He added, "It is unfortunate and perhaps frustrating, what I have noticed is the generous giving of information and time when the researcher is a foreigner, for example, Avi Shlaim, Robert Satloff and Betty Anderson were able to obtain very sensitive information. Abu Khalil concluded his speech by saying, “They are stories and tales exchanged between the king and his people, which seem scattered here and there, and some of them were not felt by anyone, were not published or referred to at the time, and they remained stories belonging to their owners, but because they are, that is, because they were not part of a predetermined plan. Or an organization, together they constitute an essential feature of the peculiarity of the Jordanian political society, because it illuminates the government and the people, and it may constitute one of the secrets of survival and continuity for this dear homeland.” For his part, Dr. Abdulaziz Mahmoud asked, "Why can't we write our contemporary history, without using oral history?", stressing the importance of oral history. He said that dealing with archives and archiving and its importance is “absent,” even from seminars, lectures, and workshops, which have political and economic significance, noting that “half of Jordanian history is oral, although it is absent.” Mahmoud added that if we want to write contemporary Jordanian history, we must take the initiative now and at this particular time, as there are many who have experienced the reality of their past and are still alive. For his part, Dr. Muhammad Al-Adwan said that oral history faces a real problem, as it is important in monitoring events and facts that books and documents have overlooked, adding that many fall into the negative that they deal with oral archives as being of the third degree when documenting. He added that oral history is no longer up for discussion in the era of the knowledge explosion. Al-Adwan said that there is still talk in the field of the importance of oral history, facing many challenges in some countries and parties that have not been able to standardize this influential branch in the management of memory preservation, because oral history is necessary, but it does not replace written documents. He added that some documenters believe that oral history or oral testimony cannot be considered history in itself, but rather it is live images of unwritten events that it is hoped to benefit from, stressing that the importance of oral testimony appears with full force in the absence of documents related to the event or information or when the event is interpreted by a person Or people who contributed to its manufacture or had a role in doing it. Al-Adwan added that if the documents are absent from the event or when the document does not give a definitive answer, then it is necessary to collect the testimonies of a number of people who participated in it or experienced it, and therefore the oral testimony sheds light that clarifies the event and contributes to its interpretation, and this is the way for researchers to analyze, root and document . And he added, “The oral testimony remains a third-degree testimony that does not rise to the level of a written document because it depends entirely on memory, and memory cannot be completely relied upon due to its erosion and ambiguity, and the mixing of its transmission with the image and with a real understanding of events, and perhaps what dominates the holder of the certificate of ideas and information. , Perception by the oral history provider. Al-Adwan pointed out that a general consensus can be assumed on the following issues: Historical testimonies are oral sources of value for archivists, as well as for historians, sociologists, politicians in general, and documented researchers, although physical archives are superior to everything else, but no one denies the value of oral testimonies. And the necessity of integrating them into the preparation for managing knowledge and archival content within international standards. In addition, notaries in general are interested in giving importance to oral testimonies in response to the desire of archival and scientific and national research institutions that request their supply in order to complete their documentary mission and complete the multiplicity of information sources. Al-Adwan indicated that in order to control the efforts to deal with the oral history system, a number of basic matters must be present in the collection of this legacy, the most important of which are: freedom, legal protection, and the courage of individuals to speak the truth, say the point of view, watch, participate or influence. He explained that the collection and classification of oral history is one of the most important opportunities available today to correct what has been written so far by some historians working for official institutions, governments or biased parties, and away from personal lamentations and boasting, pointing out at the same time that “there is almost unanimity that what was written about Contemporary history includes an inaccurate part, and an incomplete part of the epistemological documentation. And he continued, “If we take into account that oral history is a complementary source that identifies or corrects the facts documented by traditional sources, and in the absence of documents for reasons related to the legal period for perusal, or because they were lost, or because the political administration, for example in Jordan, was and still hopes that the events will not be delved into. Historical history, especially Arabic-Arabic, as a real option for spreading knowledge, in order not to stir up strife and be patient with wounds.” Al-Adwan said that the real tension still appears today in the context of the massive quantitative expansion of oral history, within two different production contexts, and they can be distinguished by the academic context, through professors of branches and sciences, professional historians, and the social context, through the popular novel, researchers and authors of heritage books. In view of these developments in oral history, he mentioned three issues included in the framework of dealing with oral history, especially in recognizing and collecting the legacy of the late Hussein: Notaries need experience in protecting, activating and understanding the general problems of historical testimonies due to their diversity and specificity, notaries need to Realizing the risks implicit in the idea of providing oral testimonies, discussing the risks related to the emerging criteria for evaluating historical testimonies in order to integrate them into the archive, especially when oral history conflicts with documents or with the postulates of people And the aggression increased if part of the topic of the symposium was the role of oral history in documenting the late Hussein, then this rich personality is in the totality of the events and contemporary issues of the region and the world, and what the great late formed of political and social thought, and most importantly, his uniqueness in the human practice that distinguished him from others of world leaders. And he indicated that the difficult stage of Jordan’s modern history, from the birth of Hussein until his transition to the supreme companion, with its ideological, intellectual and religious differences, the formation of alliances and the breakdown of alliances, a rift in the Arab Arab system, and a setback in the first issue of Arabs and Jordan, the cause of Palestine, and what it contains Events and their repercussions of speeches, and what the personality of Hussein shaped from an important and sensitive axis in direct influence in shaping Arab and international decisions, and the renaissance that Jordan witnessed during his reign. Al-Adwan stressed the need to form a documented knowledge data bank that works within: A - Arranging the years and determining their events. B - Dividing the topics to include: Al Hussein the human, Al Hussein the king, Al Hussein positions and issues, Al Hussein and the Palestine issue, Al Hussein and Arab and Islamic affiliation and religious interest, Hussein in a time of war and peace, Hussein information for remembrance, separate Hussein as a nation in a man. C - Go back to the writings of Al-Hussein. D - Dealing with what is reported in the press and the media. E - Returning to television and radio interviews. F - Dealing with the photographic legacy of Hussein. g - Finding an electronic link - telephone - or any social media - to collect the largest number of oral information. Al-Adwan concluded by saying, “The codification of the oral heritage and its use as a historical source are no longer an issue for discussion, at least in the era of the knowledge explosion. Every follower has proven its importance, and this has been adopted by scientific and national institutions in the countries of the world.” He stressed the need for oral history in Jordan to “take its true place as a collective memory that pays attention to details and relies on the multiplicity of cognitive sources for it and the transition from theorizing to framing, and from historical bragging and lamentation, to cognitive documentation based on standards.” Al-Adwan continued, "Al-Hussein was not the king and leader of a country that is one of the smallest countries in the world in terms of area, but he was the pioneer, pioneer and thinker who was founded and raised in the Abdullah I School, the school of dreamy realism. Al-Hussein is a true example of a leader who left a memory in every Jordanian home, and perhaps he left a memory in every Arab home and in the conscience of the whole world.