June 15, 2012
Objectives of the study
This study is concerned with several variables, many of which were not addressed in previous studies, related to the characteristics of the unemployed person and his behavior in the field of his search for work, and his desire to improve his personal skills with the aim of increasing the possibility of obtaining a better job and retaining it in the future, and the nature of training and rehabilitation opportunities (from courses and others, including: This includes professional training while performing the military service. It is also concerned with the behavior of the unemployed vis-à-vis the implementation of a project for his own account that he wishes to undertake, and the nature of the difficulties facing implementation, as well as the unemployed’s behavior towards the exploitation of agricultural land he owns, and the nature of the difficulties that accompany or prevent it. The study pays attention to the nature of labor force structures and their pattern of change, and the nature of professional preference.
The study provides estimates of unemployment rates in the Kingdom and the regions, according to structural details, using clear definitions approved in international statistics. The study also deals with measuring indicators related to the unemployment rate, including the disparity in the distribution of expenditures, and the poverty gap.
The study uses advanced statistical analysis with multiple variables ( Multivariate Analysis ) to diagnose some causes of unemployment.
study sample design
The sample design for this study was based on a modern framework for housing, buildings and families in the Kingdom prepared by the Department of Statistics in 1994. The design also adopted the multi-stage clustered method.
( Multi-Stage, Stratified, Cluster and Replicated Sample Design ).
Meaning that it relied on more than one axis to achieve the best representation of the different population groups and to serve multiple purposes simultaneously. The Department of Statistics considered this framework as a basis for a main sample to be branched from or from which to choose other samples for different surveys and studies (our current study depends on a randomly selected subsample from this main sample).
The Department of General Statistics thankfully provided the Center for Strategic Studies at the University of Jordan with the third group (Group C ) of the main sample.
The study team at the Center for Strategic Studies supervised the process of updating the framework of this sample (12 replicates, group C ), which contains a total of 600 clusters, in order to know the reality of buildings, housing and families in each of the clusters of this sample, as a field team was formed. From 30 researchers and 6 observers to implement the modernization process, which took 15 days, the objectives of the modernization process can be summarized as follows:
1. An inventory of all existing buildings in each cluster and a comparison with the list provided by the Department of Statistics, then adding newly constructed buildings to this list, deleting the buildings that were removed, and determining the occupancy rate of the building.
2. An inventory of all dwellings in each of these buildings, and knowing the nature of the occupancy of each dwelling, and whether the family inhabiting the dwelling is Jordanian or not, and whether it is a dwelling for students or others, or is it occupied by Jordanian or expatriate workers, and is it Empty, closed, or under construction…etc.
3. Introducing the observers through this process to the survey areas and the work that will be entrusted to them, in the sense that the modernization process served a training purpose as well.
After completing the process of updating the framework, the desk team numbered all the dwellings inhabited by Jordanian families in each cluster separately, and these clusters were entered on the computer, as the number of households included in the sample framework in all governorates of the Kingdom reached 53,353.
The sample percentage in each cluster was calculated as follows:
Sample ratio = —————
Number of households in the sample frame
Given that the required sample size from the Center for Strategic Studies is 6000 families, the
Sample percentage = ————- x 100=11.25%
By multiplying this percentage by the number of Jordanian families in each cluster, we get the number of families that are supposed to be selected from that cluster, and this number was then chosen at random using the computer.
Field work began to collect the required data on the 6000 families in the study sample on 12/6/1996, and the work was completed on 30/12/1996.
A team of researchers, numbering 93 male and female researchers, was used to implement the field work, who were trained by the study team to fill out the questionnaire. The training took five days, which included a practical application.
A summary of the study results
The data in Table (1) present a comparison between some general characteristics of the study sample and its counterpart in the survey accompanying the general population and housing census that was carried out in 1994, in terms of gender, age groups of working age, marital status, and educational level.
The study adopted a specific age group for the working-age population, which is (15-64) years. It should be noted that some studies do not set an upper limit for the working age group, but rather leave it open because not setting an upper limit on the working age would slightly raise the percentage of working-age workers, and thus reduce the unemployment rate.
The study also adopted today Aluahd¡ period preceding Almkablh¡ as a period of time assignment ( Reference the Period ). The period of one day or one week, which precedes the interview, is an acceptable alternative to each other. These two alternatives have been adopted by the International Labor Organization ( ILO ) since 1983, while the adoption of other alternatives has not been favored.
It should be noted that the difference between the two unemployment rates calculated according to these two alternatives is affected by the rate of change in the activity status of individuals of working age, between the employed and the unemployed, so the difference between the two unemployment rates increases if the rate of change in the activity status increases. It is obvious that the rate of change is higher in the longer reference period which makes the unemployment rate higher when the one day reference period is adopted.
The unemployed person is defined in this study as the individual whose age ranges between (15-64) years, and who is able to work, but does not engage in any work, and is searching for it, and who is ready to accept the work within the time reference period.
Only students who are regular in their studies are considered economically inactive, and this does not necessarily apply to graduate students or those studying by correspondence.
The ratio of the unemployed to the total population in this study is about 7, and their ratio to those of working age is about 12%, and the ratio of the unemployed to those of working age after excluding students and the disabled is about 16%, while their ratio is about 27.5% People who are of working age and who are economically active. The latter is the most widely used ratio in international comparisons when dealing with the unemployment rate.
The definition of unemployment becomes more complicated if it takes into account a set of cultural, value, and heritage factors related to the seriousness of the search for work and the sincerity of the desire to accept a job opportunity if it is available.
It is possible to consider adjusting the unemployment rate according to the following considerations:
1. Considering those who stated that they have been looking for a job for more than ten years and were unsuccessful in their endeavour, as not being serious about their search, and then they were excluded.
2. Excluding those who stated that they are looking for a job but are not ready to accept the job opportunity on the day of the interview.
3. Excluding those who stated that they are looking for a job and that they had previously obtained one or more job opportunities during their search and rejected it.
The adjustment according to these three considerations leads to a decrease in the unemployment rate in this study from 27.5% to 22.09%.
It should be noted that the study did not favor excluding the unemployed who are looking for work simply because they do not accept low wages or do not accept a job opportunity outside their specialization or for any of the similar considerations.
For the purpose of a proper comparison of the unemployment figure in this study with the figure extracted from the study “Employment, Unemployment and Income Survey 1996” – Department of Statistics, many other things must be taken into consideration, not least the importance of the difference in the time reference period between the two studies.
It was found that the unemployment rates are similar in the three regions, noting that the unemployment rate reaches the lowest in the central region. It also became clear that the unemployment rate in the governorates of Amman, Ma’an, and Aqaba is lower than in the other governorates.
The results also show that the unemployment rate is high in the young age groups within the working age, especially the group (15-19) years, and the rate reaches the lowest in the age group (45-49) years. The three regions are similar in this pattern.
With regard to educational levels, it became clear that the unemployment rate reaches its highest in the category of intermediate diploma holders, while the lowest unemployment rate is in the category of higher diploma holders (high diplomas, masters and doctorates), followed by the unemployment rate in the category of university degree holders (bachelor). .
Show tables ( 2 ¡ 3 ¡ 4 ) Unemployment rates by Alamr¡ categories and stages of Altalim¡ and the provinces. Figure 1 presents a comparison between the results of the study and the accompanying 1994 survey.
The results indicate a high percentage of the unemployed in the lower and middle spending categories, which means that the high unemployment rate could increase the dispersion in the distribution of spending among families and among individuals.
Gini coefficient (The referee Gini coefficient ) for the distribution of spending between Alosr¡ turned out to be the disparity has increased from what it was in 1987¡ but the disparity in the distribution according to the study data is still lower than it was in 1980. Tables ( 5 and 6 ) it.
It also became clear that the percentage of families and the percentage of individuals who are below the extreme poverty line did not rise despite the high unemployment rate, but rather decreased from the percentage recorded in 1992 * .
The unemployed showed a relatively wide knowledge of institutions that could help develop individual projects, but the percentage of those who contacted these institutions was low, while the percentage of those who benefited from them was very low. Figure (2) shows the percentage of families below the extreme poverty line in the regions. Figure (3) shows the distribution of poor families by regions.
It was clear from the responses of the unemployed who are looking for work that 41.6% of them are thinking of doing a job on their own, and they indicated obstacles that prevent this, the most important of which was “the unavailability of personal finance” and then “the lack of funding from other parties on encouraging terms” and the third obstacle In terms of importance it is “the procedures and necessary transactions are complex.” As for the nature of the jobs they are thinking of doing, it was numerous and varied, commensurate with the diversity of their skills and their sense of the needs of society, and no more than 6% of the respondents agreed to think about doing a specific job, except for “retail trade” and “land transportation”. Figure (4) shows the most important obstacles faced by the unemployed, which prevent them from undertaking private work.
The results revealed that approximately 17.8% of the unemployed, or their family, own arable land, 26.8% of the unemployed, who own arable land, indicated that their land is not exploited, and no more than 8.6% of them expressed a desire to use their land. . Respondents pointed out, in this regard, to several obstacles and problems that prevent them from exploiting their agricultural land, the most important of which were “financing obstacles (lack of soft loans)” and then “water problems”. Table ( 7 ) illustrates this. Figure (5) shows the most important of these obstacles.
Males represent about 87% of the total employed individuals, and the percentage of those who performed the military service is approximately 27%. Table ( 8 ) shows the percentage of males aged 15-64 who have completed compulsory service and their relationship to the labor force (excluding students and the disabled).
It is worth noting that about 66% of the individuals who work and performed the military service during which they performed other additional jobs, besides the basic military work, gained them skills and experiences, some of which were useful to them in their later practical life. Among these works, ¡writing on the printer, driving, repairing electrical appliances, repairing cars (mechanics), dyeing, blacksmithing, carpentry, and others. The prevalence rates of these skills varied among the trainees in different years, and this was reflected in the age groups of working males who performed the military service.
The skills acquired are concentrated in age groups. The percentage of those who acquired skills in the age group (20-24) was about 71%, and in the age group (25-29) years, 63%, then it decreased in the relatively high categories, reaching 57% in the group (45-49) years, and 38% In the category (50-54) years. That is, the young ages are the most acquiring of skills during the service of science, and the most benefit from them later in practical life.
It should be noted that the acquisition of skills during the service of science is not greatly affected by the level of education of the individual, as dealing with them in this regard tends to be equal, with the exception of highly qualified (medical professions in particular) who are directed to perform work in their field of specialization.
It is useful to note that 14.5% of working males hold a bachelor’s degree or higher, and that 86.5% have an intermediate diploma or less. We find that approximately 12%ð of those who performed the military service hold a bachelor’s degree or higher, and that 63.4% of them have acquired skills while serving the sciences. While 68.5% of those with less than a bachelor’s level of education and who have performed the military service have acquired these skills. Equality in the provision of training opportunities does not necessarily reflect equal use of them.
It turns out that approximately 18.6%6% of the total individuals who acquired these skills have used them in obtaining a job. This percentage reaches 19% among those with less than a bachelor’s degree, and decreases to 15.2% among those with a bachelor’s degree or higher. And if those who performed the military service and acquired skills during it were classified according to the means of communication they followed and which led to their obtaining their current work, then the means of self-employment was one of the most common means they used to obtain this job, with a percentage of 15.4%.
It is noted that those whose skills acquired during their service helped them to get a job later were concentrated in the age group (25-39) years, which included 93% of them, and the largest part of them was 41.5% concentrated in the age group (30-34 years), and they were the ones who performed Science service in the mid-eighties.
As for the beneficiaries of the skills acquired in obtaining a job, distributed according to the categories of monthly expenditure per person, it became clear that they are concentrated in the lowest expenditure categories, as 75% of them fall within the expenditure categories in which the average per capita expenditure is less than 40 dinars per month.
It is also important to note that individuals who acquired skills during the service of science tend to work in the field of that skill or profession (the general field for it according to the professions guide).
Most of the skills acquired during the service of the sciences, according to the professions guide, are included in the following professions:
Workers in crafts, clerks, specialists, technicians and assistant specialists, and machine operators and assemblers.
Most of the skills acquired within the profession fall into the profession of “trade workers” in all years of service. It should be noted here that the percentage of workers in this profession who are below the poverty line reaches 21%, while the percentage of workers in this profession in general reaches 17%, and that about 54% of those working in this profession are in the lower expenditure categories in which the average Individual spending about 30 dinars per month.
As for the usefulness of the skills acquired during the service of science in the current jobs, 24.5% of those who acquired these skills indicated that they are useful to them in their current work.
The sense of benefit is concentrated in the age groups (25-39) years, especially in the age group (30-34 years), as more than 39% of the individuals who stated that they benefited from their skills are concentrated, and this focus reflects a more appropriate training for the needs of work while serving the sciences. During the first half of the eighties.
It was also clear that the diagnosis of the benefit, according to the distribution of beneficiaries according to the educational level, is concentrated in two categories: middle school graduates and the professional diploma. In these two categories, more than 51% of the total number of beneficiaries of the skills acquired in the current work are concentrated, while the number of members of these two categories does not exceed 12% of the total number of people who acquire skills while serving the sciences.
Benefiting from the skills acquired at work has been concentrated among individuals who fall into the middle and lower expenditure categories. As for the higher expenditure category (100 dinars or more per person per month), the percentage of beneficiaries did not exceed 4% of the total number of beneficiaries. Figure (6) shows the distribution of the working poor and the unemployed according to their practice of any skill during their military service.
Satisfaction with work and reasons for leaving work
The element of job satisfaction is considered in many economic and social studies as one of the most important reasons for the individual worker’s superiority, creativity, and high productivity, and these results in total are among the most important elements of the superior competitive advantage, which Jordan definitely needs to strengthen.
The random sample of the study included 5,811 people working in various professions and sectors and in various parts of the Kingdom. About 12% of them stated that they are completely dissatisfied with their work, while about 45% indicated that they are satisfied with their work to a large degree. The degree of job satisfaction appears to be higher among females than among males.
When observing the level of education of working individuals, it was found that there is a tendency for their feeling of job satisfaction to decrease with their educational level, as the percentage of those who are completely dissatisfied with their work between PhD, master and bachelor’s degree holders, for example, reached 4.5%, 8.5% and 9.7%, respectively. respectively, while the ratio between the literate and the illiterate reaches 13.7% and 13.6%, respectively.
It should be noted in this regard that more than 80% of individuals (males and females) who actually work do not exceed their secondary education level, so improving their level of satisfaction with their work is very important to improve the quality of work and its productivity in general.
When observing the ages of the working individuals, it was found that the tendency is clear for the working individual to decrease the feeling of satisfaction with his work in the very young and very high age groups within the working age, while the level of job satisfaction reaches the highest level among the middle age groups.
The percentage of those who are satisfied with their work to a large degree in the age groups (15-19) and (20-24) years reached about 35% and 40%, respectively. This percentage reaches its highest level in the age group (35-39 years), reaching almost 52%. The percentage decreases in the higher age groups.
Unemployment rates tend to be relatively high in young age groups, making the opportunity for selecting suitable or desirable work relatively limited for these groups. It is important to note that dissatisfaction with the nature of the work practiced, and its frequent change in young age groups, reduces the opportunities for training and mastery, and the qualifications built on them for creativity and superiority in competition.
The pattern of job satisfaction in different age groups is consistent between males and among females.
Dissatisfaction with work is affected by several factors, as evidenced by this study, but it is clearly inversely proportional to the level of per capita spending. The percentage of those who are completely dissatisfied with their work in the lower expenditure category (ten dinars or less per person per month) is approximately 20%, and this percentage drops to less than 9% in the higher expenditure categories (150 dinars or more per person per month).
Dissatisfaction with work is also affected by the nature of the employer (for example, if a person works for his own account, for the family, or in an institution belonging to the public sector, or an institution belonging to the private or mixed sector). It is clear that the total dissatisfaction with work among workers in the private sector is higher than in the public sector, as the percentage reaches 17% and 6%, respectively, while the percentage of job satisfaction is to a large degree among workers in the private and public sectors. 29% and 60%, respectively. A clear rise in the percentage of dissatisfaction among workers in the private sector is not compatible with the modern and increasing trend towards privatization, nor with the future increasing dependence on this sector in external competition.
The relationship appears to be very strong between the level of job satisfaction and whether the work is considered permanent or temporary. It became clear from the study that approximately 81% of the employees see that their work is permanent (they do not expect to leave work in the foreseeable future), while 17% of them consider that their work is temporary. The percentage of those who are satisfied with their work to a large degree among those with permanent and temporary jobs is 52% and 13%, respectively, while the percentage of those who are completely dissatisfied with their work is 8% and 23%, respectively. These results confirm the concern that dissatisfaction is accompanied by leaving work instead of continuing and perfecting in the case of job satisfaction.
The study showed that about 24% of the total working individuals are thinking of looking for another job or they are looking for another job, and this percentage among those who are not satisfied with their work is about 70%. These percentages are higher among males than among females. It was also clear that 12.6% of workers in the public sector are looking for another job or are considering searching, while this percentage reaches 38% among workers in the private sector, 27% among those who work for their families, and 22% among those who work for their own account. .
41.3% of job seekers or thinkers looking for another job stated that the probability of them obtaining another job ranges between large and medium, which is a high percentage that makes searching for a satisfactory job other than the current one feasible, and this percentage was clearly higher. ¡ Among those in the private sector compared to the public sector.
As for leaving work, it was found that 37% of the cases of leaving work are due to economic reasons related to the establishment, such as: work contraction, closing the institution, or a decrease in the level of wages, while 47% of the cases are attributed to personal reasons related to the worker, such as: failure to work. Feeling the pleasure of work, self-realization, health reasons, retirement, marriage, and family care.
job search method
It was found that there are a large number of means of communication, inquiry, and demand, which the individual resorts to when searching for a job. The number of these means has reached 26 different means, used by working individuals as a primary means through which they obtained their work, and the unemployed use it as the most important means they hope to They get a job through it.
The means of searching for work used by individuals who work in six specific means were concentrated, so the percentage of individuals who worked and got their work through one of these six means reached 90%. These means are: newspaper advertisements, personal visits to institutions and workplaces, helping friends and family, submitting a request to the offices of the Ministry of Labor, submitting an application to the Civil Service Commission, and self-employment. The percentage of unemployed individuals who have previously worked and who consider one of these six means the most important means through which they hope to find a job is 44.2%. While the percentage among unemployed individuals who have never worked before was 66%. The contrast here is clear between these three groups of individuals in their choice of means of searching for work.
The unemployed were distinguished by their resort to mediation with the representatives of their regions, former ministers, and tribal sheikhs, and their low dependence on the means of personal visits to work sites.
When observing the methods used in the different age groups of working individuals, it was found that young ages are more dependent on the means of “helping friends and family.” This method enabled 46.5% of those who work in the age group (15-19) to get a job, and this method decreases. The percentage reaches 32% in the age group (20-24) years, and this percentage continues to decline with increasing age, then returns to a slightly higher increase in the advanced ages (55-64 years).
As for the method of “personal visits to institutions and workplaces”, the dependence on it is less in the age group (15-19) years, as it reaches 27%, and this percentage increases with increasing age, reaching 38% in the age group (20-24) years, then returns For a decrease in advanced ages (60-64) years to reach 20.3%.
When we observe the main methods used by the unemployed, we find that the format of “helping friends and family” in different age groups is similar to that of those who work. As for the “mediation” method, it seems that interest in it is not specifically affected by the age group, i.e., the use of this method depends on factors other than the age factor.
The analysis showed that the use of some means in the search for work is affected by the level of education of individuals. The percentage of those who relied on “newspaper advertisements” to obtain their current job, who hold a bachelor’s degree or higher, amounted to 7.3%, while this percentage did not exceed 3.3% among those with less than a bachelor’s level education. As for individuals with a bachelor’s level of education or higher, 13% of them relied on “helping friends and family” in obtaining their current work, while this percentage reached 29.1% among those with a lower level of education.
It should be noted that the most widely used means to obtain current employment among those who have attained a bachelor’s degree or higher is the “Civil Service Bureau” method, as 27.9% of these individuals relied on it, while this percentage did not exceed 5% among those who did not reach their education level to the undergraduate level.
This pattern is repeated in the difference in reliance on the means of searching for work among the unemployed with regard to “newspaper ads”, “helping friends and family” and “civil service bureau”, but the intensity of the difference is less than what is between those who work.
When observing the means of searching for work in different income groups, it was found that individuals in the lower income group depend more than others in the higher income groups on “personal visits to institutions and workplaces” and “helping friends and family.” This applies to the employed and the unemployed.
Individuals differ according to gender in their adoption of the means of searching for work, as males are more likely to use “personal visits to institutions and workplaces” than females. Males are also more successful in using “friends and family help” to get work than females. While females are more likely to use the “Civil Service Bureau” in obtaining a job opportunity than males.
5.1% of males obtained their current work through the Civil Service Commission, while 29.3% of females obtained their current work through this method, and this pattern applies in the difference between males and females in the way of searching for work among the unemployed as well.
Career preferences of job seekers
We chose to explore the aspect of the occupational tendencies of the unemployed among many factors that affect work behavior, as a result of the great influence of this factor, not only on the rate of production during work, but also because of its importance in guiding the behavior of the unemployed during the job search process. They pay attention to it, realize it, accept it, or reject it, consciously or unconsciously, in direct connection with their professional inclinations.
The results showed that the positive and negative occupational preferences of the unemployed, who numbered 7,984 males and females, were all confined to only 281 professions. Note that the questions asked them to list three positive and three negative occupational preferences. From a theoretical point of view, they may have more than twenty-three thousand occupational choices. From a practical point of view, it is quite possible that the number of actual occupational preferences may be in the thousands rather than the hundreds. Noting that the number of current and thriving businesses in developed countries, which are accurately described in the Dictionary of Professions, amounts to forty thousand professions.
In order to find out those professions that are highly preferred by job seekers, we chose those professions whose preference was at least 1% of the sample of job seekers. It was found that the professions that females prefer, and therefore search for to practice, are confined to 16 professions, the most important of which are: teaching, administrative and governmental office jobs, knitting and sewing, followed by secretarial work. Figure (7) illustrates this.
As for male job seekers, we find that the professions preferred by 1% or more of the sample of male job seekers are limited to 28 professions, the most important of which are driving cars, government office and administrative jobs, self-employment, and guard duties.
It is worth mentioning here that the professions that no one preferred, and 1% or more of the sample members expressed their hatred for them, do not exceed two professions: cleaning and domestic service.
It is clear that the knowledge and preference of these individuals for these jobs is an acquired and learned issue from their environment, which includes public cultural institutions, and formal and informal educational and vocational education. These institutions provide, directly and indirectly, individuals with expertise, skills, and inclinations.
The similarity of experiences and interests of job seekers leads to intense competition between them over what is offered of limited opportunities, gradually diminishing their ability to negotiate with employers who can choose what suits them without any difficulty. The unemployed becomes gradually more anxious and accepting of conditions that were difficult for him to accept in other circumstances, which is illustrated by the form of factors or components of occupational preference No. (8). These factors have been reduced to the unemployed into two areas:
The first: obtaining the same job, especially what is commensurate with the experience and skill available to the unemployed.
The second: the salary factor, which is less in terms of repetition than the first factor, meaning that the ability of the worker to negotiate and extract the best possible salary is questionable.
As for the other aspects, they are almost neglected by most of the sample members, with the exception of a small percentage of female job seekers. We have pointed out the importance of demographic factors, ie the proximity of the place or its distance from home, in addition to the factors of social values, and the view of others about work and its conditions.
Those who are unemployed are in dire need of a broader career horizon. This is the responsibility of educational, training, and professional institutions, and the media, especially television, which need a study to know the nature of the needs of future economic development. It is unreasonable that the occupational preference for such a relatively large sample is confined to a modest number of similar occupations. Expanding the circle of professional interests adds to the individual flexibility in the search for and acceptance of work.
Attention must be paid to developing vocational training, so that the training turns from training in specific professions to training in a professional family, so that the acquired skills are valid in any of the professions included in that family.
Those who prefer private businesses can be trained on the requirements of private work, such as: organizational and collaborative skills, work analysis and design, and legal aspects. These matters may be of the helping factors to overcome this phenomenon º that we may need training to develop the skills of small private work carried out by one individual or several individuals as partners among themselves.
In view of the weak bargaining ability of the unemployed when they try to obtain the offered professions, it is useful to explore the managers’ methods of exploiting the weakness of the workers, which will keep the worker unstable and dissatisfied with his work, which makes the work efficiency very low.
Illustrated format the relationship between the global age and training through cost-benefit analysis ( Cost- the Analysis Benefit .). Feeling the feasibility of training and having a sound understanding of choosing the appropriate type of it, the ability to pay its cost, allocating the time period required for it, and the necessity of anticipating a satisfactory return that will result in the future, all affect the pattern of the aforementioned relationship, which tends to be a non-linear one. Young people in the age group (15-24) years, for example, underestimate the importance of training in obtaining a job opportunity from the middle age groups (25-44 years), and have the weakest ability to bear the financial burden of training. As for the older groups (45-64) years, their training is less profitable than that of the younger groups due to the reduced period of their expected economic activity in the future. In addition, old age is often accompanied by a decrease in the flexibility of personality to accept training on what is new. In order to identify the degree of individuals’ interest in training, as it is an influential factor that helps in obtaining a job, the reference will be to training in the field of work (profession), familiarity with the use of computers, and knowledge of a foreign language. Noting that the study classified 32 fields of training, and this classification is adopted in the analysis.
The percentage of individuals who considered training in the field of work (profession) very important to obtain a job was 61.2% in the age group (15-24) years, it reached 61.7% in the age group (25-44) years, and 53.6% in Age group (45-64) years. As for computer literacy, the percentage of those who considered it very important to get a job was 42.3%, 44.4% and 35.5%, respectively, in the three age groups.
The percentage of those who considered knowledge of a foreign language to be very important to getting a job was 39.4%, 47.7%, and 41.3% in the three age groups, respectively.
As for the percentage of individuals’ participation according to the three age groups in training courses in general, it reached 18.5% in the age group (15-24) years, 26% in the age group (25-44) years, and 13.9% in the age group (45-64). ) Year.
It became clear that the percentage of participants in training in general is low, whether among the employed or the unemployed, and this percentage is 21.3%.
It is likely that the relationship between the factor of formal education and training is positive and linear, as the higher level of education of the individual means a broader awareness of the significance of training, and higher returns from it. The results showed that the highest rate of interest in training was among individuals who hold an intermediate diploma, a bachelor’s degree, and higher degrees, as 66% of them considered training courses in the field of work to a great degree important in obtaining a job, while 60% of them considered computer literacy important. To a great degree. 63% of them considered knowledge of a foreign language to be very important to getting a job. Among the illiterate, these three percentages drop to 37%, 17%, and 18%, respectively.
The results showed that the variation in participation in training, at the different levels of education, is more severe than the variation in the interest in it. While the percentage of participants in training courses reached 4% among the illiterate and the literate (they can read and write), this percentage exceeded 45% among the ranks of holders of bachelor’s and higher degrees.
The results showed that individuals in the low spending categories give less importance to training, \”in the field of work\”, knowledge of using computers, and knowledge of a foreign language, in order to get a job. The percentage of individuals in the lowest expenditure category (individual spending less than 20 dinars per month) who gave great importance to training in the field of work reached 57%, compared to 66% of individuals in the higher expenditure category (individual spending more than 100 dinars per month). . The percentage of those who gave a high degree of importance to computer literacy in the lower expenditure category was 32% compared to 51% in the higher expenditure category. Regarding the importance of being familiar with a foreign language, the percentage was 32% in the lower expenditure category and 57% in the higher expenditure category. As for participation in training, the percentage of participants (whatever the type of training course) in the lower expenditure category was 13%, compared to 31% in the higher expenditure category.
It may come to mind that females are less interested and participate in training than males, especially if we know that only 13% of the total number of employees are female. However, the results showed the opposite, as they are more interested in training than males. As for the percentage of women participating in training courses, it is 21.5%, compared to 21.1% for males.
Some might expect that individuals’ awareness of the importance of training, as a factor that facilitates obtaining a job, and participating in training, will be more widespread in the central region due to the influence of the capital and its concentrated economic, educational and media activities. It was clear from the results that individuals in the central region actually excel in their interest in and participation in training, but their difference from individuals in the northern region is slight in this regard. The difference increases when compared to the situation in the south. The percentage of individuals who gave a high degree of importance to training in the field of work in order to obtain a job opportunity reached 62.1% in the center region, and the percentage reached 61.3% in the North region, while the percentage decreased to 47.6% in the South region. The case is similar with regard to the importance of computer literacy, as the percentages of individuals who gave a high degree of importance reached 43.7%, 42.1%, and 35.1% in the middle, north, and south, respectively.
Regarding the participation of individuals in training, the percentage of participants in the center region was 23.1%, while the percentage was 17.4% in the North region, and 19.6% in the South region.
Individuals’ interest in and participation in training varies in urban and rural areas, but the variation in interest in training in the field of work is small compared to the variation in interest in computer literacy or a foreign language. The percentage of individuals participating in training reached 22.4% in urban areas, while the percentage reached 16.4% in rural areas.
It is worth mentioning here that the results of market analysis Logistic Analysis has shown the importance of Alaml¡ variables and Altalim¡walanvaq without Gerha¡ as variables associated with participation in training courses.
The analysis showed that participation in training is linked to basic variables that are consistent with the logic of the economic theory, namely, age, education, and income. As for other variables, such as region, gender, and country of origin, they are weakly related to training. These other variables were suggested on the basis that the population could be characterized by heterogeneity in its participation in training due to a combination of economic, social, and demographic factors related to the region, gender, or country of origin.
The fact that these other variables are not related to participation in training would reduce the cost of implementing appropriate economic policies, as it is not necessary, in this case, to direct a special policy package towards certain groups and not others.
Diagnosing the basic variables can be useful to stimulate the demand for participation in training only if it is known in which direction this training should be to facilitate the opportunity to get a job. Perhaps as a first step, it is necessary to compare the structures of the training courses that are contributed to the ranks of the employed and the unemployed. If the training has significance and a role in obtaining or retaining a job, this will justify a statistically significant difference between the two structures. Appropriate statistical tests have shown that the difference between the two structures is statistically significant at the 5% level. It became clear that there is an exaggeration in the participation of the unemployed in secretarial courses, sewing courses, beautician courses and hair cutting in particular, while there is a deficit in administrative leadership courses, educational methods and methods courses, hotel management and work courses, car mechanics courses, and marketing and trade assets courses. ¡ Electronic maintenance courses.
A comparison has also been made between the structures of the courses in which the workers participated during their work and those in which the unemployed (job-seekers) participated during their unemployment, and the aim of the comparison is to find out whether the interests of the workers coincide with the interests of the unemployed who are eager to work, who hope, undoubtedly, to contribute Training to get them a job.
It was found that the difference between the two structures is statistically significant at the 5% level, and the deficit in training the unemployed was evident in the fields of education, crafts, accounting, and banking.
These results are in agreement with the opinion that the inappropriate selection of training courses is consistent with the unemployed losing their jobs, and that they are still training according to the format of their previous training, and that the continuation of the justifications for their unemployment may have the same previous effect in depriving them of a job opportunity.
What is worrying, and requires proper awareness, is that the course structure of the unemployed job-seeking courses does not differ from that of the courses of the unemployed people who are not looking for work, and the structures of their future desires to enter training courses also coincide.